It’s pretty fascinating that we’re still discovering previously unknown human anatomical features, even in our eyes! Though there is some controversy over whether or not it is a true corneal layer, “Dua’s layer” seems to be a strong region of tissue in the eye. Our eyes aren’t the only place we’re still finding things though, and although it was first seen in 1879, it’s taken until recently to pin down the location of a knee ligament that could be involved in one of the most common sports injuries. Finally, the discovery of lymphatic vessels in the brain ends the theory of the brain being immune privileged (i.e. immune cells can’t enter the brain).
By the way, these new discoveries aren’t the result of sudden evolutionary mutation within the last few years. So unlike our character here, you don’t have to worry about waking up with tentacles.
Corneal layer: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23714320
Knee ligament: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23906341
Lymapthic vessels in the brain: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26030524